Using Gamification and Augmented Reality Micro-Location to Increase Sense of Place Through Service-Dominant Logic.

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


There are increasing cases where technology is used to enhance services creating better user experiences. This thesis focuses on analysis and understanding of enhancing the place as a service system with location-based gamification and augmented reality (AR) within the context of Sense of place and revealing its potential by explaining how and why it works. To do this, this research explored why and how to implement gamified AR in places to increase Sense of place and which implementation strategies are effective and which ones are to be avoided. In essence, this thesis looked to answer what conditions facilitate the implementation of gamified augmented reality micro-location at places to increase Sense of place? The thesis also overviewed other aspects of gamified AR-based micro-location at places, such as functionality, features, benefits, and business value and the shortcomings and limitations of gamified augmented reality micro-location. The research used mixed methods research methodology to understand the inquired data better while also using design science research methodology to develop a solution as a gamified mobile AR mobile application. The mobile application enabled the experimental intervention on the individual Sense of place through a unique experience at an indigenous artworks exhibition on an Australian university campus. The data was collected through a series of surveys, interviews, and observations and analysed with qualitative and quantitative data analysis tools such as NVivo and SPSS, respectively.

The results suggest that the hedonic dimension of gamification is a predictor of individual Sense of place and its Place attachment dimension. The utilitarian dimension and AR user experience were suggested predictors of Place dependence and Place identity dimensions, respectively. The findings also filter out the approaches to optimisation for successful outcomes of gamified AR experiences, providing deeper insight into the implementation. The significance of these findings is that the hedonic side of gamification could be used to predict changes in individual sense of place and highlighted relevant recommendations on how to optimise the design and development of a gamified AR micro-location.

The research on gamified AR micro-location at places through service-dominant logic is novel and still not explored in enough depth. Therefore, the thesis findings will provide guidelines on strategies for employing gamification and AR for more engaging and enjoyable experiences at and around places regarding value creation and psychological and behavioural outcomes, generalisable across many different domains. Moreover, the thesis will be beneficial to any present and perspective gamified augmented reality and/or location-based implementations.
Date of Award2022
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorJames Birt (Supervisor), Jeffrey Brand (Supervisor) & Derek Carson (Supervisor)

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