This thesis investigates the urotoxic effects of the commonly used cytoxic drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Both drugs are well recognised for causing haemorrhagic cystitis and lasting adverse effects in the bladder including pain, increased urinary frequency and urgency and sensations of incomplete bladder emptying. These adverse effects have been largely attributed to the formation of the toxic metabolite acrolein which is excreted in the urine. However, another urinary metabolite of these drugs is chloroacetaldehyde and its role in urotoxicity has not been explored. Understanding more about what effects these drugs and their metabolites have on the bladder and its function may uncover possible targets for preventing, alleviating or treating the adverse urological effects and could lead to better drug toleration and better treatment outcomes.