Green building (GB) is one of the most effective solutions to increase the efficiency of buildings through resource utilisation and recycling, mitigating the negative impact of the construction industry on the environment. As a construction innovation, GB has faced numerous challenges to its penetration into a market crowded with conventional buildings. Studies of GB barriers have been conducted around the world, including the United States, Europe, Australia and Asia, but they are scarce in Vietnam and limited to individual perspectives. This paper identifies 41 barriers to GB in Vietnam from the literature and validates them by a survey of 215 construction professionals and government officers. Principal Component Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis is used to reveal that, while legislative and institutional barriers are widely perceived as the most challenging obstacles, social and cognitive barriers as a whole represent the main hindrances involved. Final remarks include policy recommendations for GB adoption in Vietnam and suggestions for further research.