Where to now? A systematic review of moulage in health professions education

Research output: Contribution to conferencePosterResearchpeer-review

44 Downloads (Pure)


The use of moulage in medical education dates to 17th century Europe. The word moulage means “to mould”, describing the technical process of making a negative mould of a body part and then filling it with wax. Despite its long history in medical education, moulage has been underappreciated in modern teaching. There has been very little research to inform the theoretical and practical
application of moulage. This abstract describes a systematic review that explored the effects of moulage interventions in simulation- based education and training, for learner experience. A secondary aim was to understand which pedagogical frameworks were embedded in moulage interventions.

Four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EmBase, Proquest Central) were systematically searched to October 2021 for studies utilising moulage in simulation- based education experiences. There were no date exclusions, however manuscripts
other than English language were excluded. Outcomes we sought to explore focused on learner satisfaction, confidence, immersion, engagement,
performance or knowledge.

A total of 19 studies (n=7490) were included in the study. These studies were primarily conducted in medicine (n=9 studies) and nursing (n=4 studies) and less frequently across other health disciplines. The findings demonstrated greater
learner satisfaction, confidence, and immersion when moulage was used against a comparator group. Minimal improvements in knowledge and
performance were identified. Only one study underpinned the intervention with a pedagogical theory.

Moulage contributes to improved learner experience in simulation training, but not knowledge or clinical performance. Gaps in the literature remain in areas outside of medicine and in work that includes strong learning theories.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - May 2023
EventICSF: International Clinical Skills Foundation: 9th International Clinical Skills Conference 2023 - Monash Prato Center, Via Pugliesi, 26, 59100, Prato, Italy
Duration: 21 May 202324 May 2023
Conference number: 9th


ConferenceICSF: International Clinical Skills Foundation
Abbreviated titleICSF
Internet address


Dive into the research topics of 'Where to now? A systematic review of moulage in health professions education'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this