Virtual reality-based learning through the lens of eudaemonic factors: Reflective thinking as a game changer

Qing Ye, Rongting Zhou, Muhammad Azfar Anwar, Ahmad Nabeel Siddiquei, Siraj Hussain, Fahad Asmi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study aims to explore what determinants affect learners’ intention to continue using virtual reality (VR) for learning in formal classroom settings. In the proposed theoretical framework, three eudaemonic factors, namely perceived utility, curiosity, and superior influence, were adapted as external stimuli. Moreover, individuals’ cognitive absorption and reflective thinking were set as mediators, while the traits of openness and digital literacy were set as moderators. A total of 463 school students (grades 9/10, M = 284, F = 179) participated in the designed experiment based on a personal computer-based immersive environment. Then, the students were asked to complete a perceived utility scale, superior influence scale, curiosity and cognitive absorption scale, reflective thinking scale, digital literacy and trait of openness scale. The results demonstrated that eudaemonic factors positively influence students’ cognition (cognitive absorption and reflective thinking) and learners’ intention to continue to use VR for learning. Notably, individuals’ digital literacy and openness traits significantly moderate personal reflective thinking in an immersive environment. In this study, we illustrated the conceptual view of learners’ intention to continue using VR for learning, which has theoretical and practical implications for educators, researchers, and policy-makers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101103
JournalThinking Skills and Creativity
Early online date20 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


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