Vibration of Timber and Hybrid Floors: A Review of Methods of Measurement, Analysis, and Design

Hassan Karampour*, Farid Piran*, Adam Faircloth, Nima Talebian, Dane Miller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
90 Downloads (Pure)


Floor vibration, although not a safety concern, is a prevalent performance complaint in multi-story structures. With the increasing use of mass timber construction, various types of long-span timber floors (LSTFs), including plain cross-laminated timber (CLT), CLT with secondary beams (ribbed-deck), and hybrid systems such as timber–concrete composite (TCC) and CLT on-steel-support beams, are gaining popularity. However, due to limited knowledge regarding their vibration characteristics and acceptance criteria, these construction types are often overlooked during the design stage by architects, engineers, and builders. Existing standards and guidelines primarily calibrated for steel and concrete floors lack a validated and calibrated method for evaluating the vibration performance of LSTFs. Nonetheless, it is essential for structural engineers to address vibration concerns during the design stage and potentially investigate excessive vibration in existing buildings, providing mitigation solutions. This article provides a comprehensive overview, discussion, and analysis of the measurement, analysis, design, perception, and acceptability of vibration of timber floors as outlined in international standards and commonly used guidelines. Experimental and theoretical case studies, including vibration measurements of a CLT floor and a comparison of vibration acceptability in lightweight timber floors using different methods, are reported. The results highlight discrepancies between simplified equation calculations and modal analysis observations, underscoring the limitations of relying solely on simplified equations. Furthermore, it is observed that current modal superposition methods tend to be conservative in predicting floor acceleration and velocity responses. Recommendations are provided for future research in the field to enhance floor vibration assessment techniques, aiming for improved design optimization and occupant comfort.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1756
Pages (from-to)1-49
Number of pages49
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


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