This study examines the effect of climate change knowledge, anxiety, and experience on climate adaptation using survey data from 874 farmers in the Western North Region of Ghana. To present unbiased estimates, the instrumental variable regression technique was applied to control for endogeneity. Results indicated that climate change anxiety and knowledge significantly increase climate change adaptation among farmers. Also, climate change experience has a significant inverse relationship with climate change adaptation. Furthermore, climate change adaptation is significantly higher among farmers producing crops and livestock (mixed farming), partnership and cooperation/organization farmers, and farmers with a net monthly income range between 501 and 2500 cedis (USD 83.5–416.7). Our findings direct policymakers’ attention to investing in climate-smart agriculture, economic and socio-psychological strategies to strengthen adaptive capacities.