The role of frontostriatal impairment in freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease

James M. Shine, Ahmed A. Moustafa, Elie Matar, Michael J. Frank, Simon J.G. Lewis

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77 Citations (Scopus)
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Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling symptom of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) that leads to an increased risk of falls and nursing home placement. Interestingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that the manifestation of FOG is related to specific deficits in cognition, such as set shifting and the ability to process conflict-related signals. These findings are consistent with the specific patterns of abnormal cortical processing seen during functional neuroimaging experiments of FOG, implicating increased neural activation within cortical structures underlying cognition, such as the Cognitive Control Network. In addition, these studies show that freezing episodes are associated with abnormalities in the BOLD response within key structures of the basal ganglia, such as the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus. In this article, we discuss the implications of these findings on current models of freezing behavior and propose an updated model of basal ganglia impairment during FOG episodes that integrates the neural substrates of freezing from the cortex and the basal ganglia to the cognitive dysfunctions inherent in the condition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number61
JournalFrontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 4 Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes


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