The relationship between shopping mall image and congruity on customer behaviour: Evidence from Indonesia

Thomas S. Kaihatu*, Mark T. Spence

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Competition is intensifying amongst shopping malls. In response scholars have advanced various perspectives regarding how to differentiate shopping malls to gain competitive advantage, such as adding or expanding the level of entertainment available (Sit et al., 2003). Others suggest malls satisfy non-functional wants, which stem from associations one has with the mall (Rintamaki et al., 2006). Herein, a reflective measurement model is tested that explores the relationships between the latent constructs shopping mall image and congruity on customer behaviour. A high-end shopping mall in Indonesia is the context. As hypothesized, shopping mall image had a strong effect on customer behaviour, namely, the likelihood of purchasing, returning to the mall, and spreading positive WOM. However, congruity – captured by the indicator variables ‘self-image congruity’ and ‘congruity with other shoppers’ – had no effect on customer behaviour. We attribute this unanticipated finding to Indonesians scoring low on Hofstede's dimensions of Individualism and Indulgence. Survey participants indicated that there was high self-image congruity as well as congruity with other shoppers, but were unwilling to admit it affects their shopping behaviour – arguably, that would be self-indulgent and indicate a lack of restraint with respect to controlling their desires.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-145
Number of pages5
JournalAustralasian Marketing Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016


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