[Extract] Very high levels of diabetes have been reported in urban areas of India (1), but few data are available for rural regions where >70% of the population lives. Data from a new large-scale survey done in 2005 suggest rural India may soon experience the same epidemic of diabetes. A total of 4,535 individuals aged ≥30 years (response rate 81%, mean age 46.8 years) were sampled at random age and sex strata from 20 villages representative of Godavari, a developing rural area of Andhra Pradesh. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and a brief physical examination with fasting finger-prick blood glucose measured in all participants using B-Braun USV meters (Melsungen, Germany). Fasting venous samples were also done in a random subsample of 1,070 individuals. Estimates of diabetes prevalence for the 20 villages were calculated by applying sampling weights derived from a census done in 2004 with diabetes defined by disease history and/or fasting glucose of 7.0 mmol or over.