A carefully designed map can reduce pedestrians’ cognitive load during wayfinding and may be an especially useful navigation aid in crowded public environments. In the present paper, we report three studies that investigated the effects of map complexity and crowd movement on wayfinding time, accuracy and hesitation using both online and laboratory-based networked virtual reality (VR) platforms. In the online study, we found that simple map designs led to shorter decision times and higher accuracy compared to complex map designs. In the networked VR set-up, we found that co-present participants made very few errors. In the final VR study, we replayed the traces of participants’ avatars from the second study so that they indicated a different direction than the maps. In this scenario, we found an interaction between map design and crowd movement in terms of decision time and the distributions of locations at which participants hesitated. Together, these findings can help the designers of maps for public spaces account for the movements of real crowds.
Zhao, H., Thrash, T., Grossrieder, A., Kapadia, M., Moussaid, M., Hölscher, C., & Schinazi, V. R. (2020). The interaction between map complexity and crowd movement on navigation decisions in virtual reality. Royal Society Open Science, 7(3), . https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191523