As a highly urbanised city-state with limited rooftop space but large façade areas of skyscrapers, Singapore is particularly suitable for the implementation of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study aims to identify relevant barriers that still hinder the greater adoption of BIPV perceived by stakeholders in Singapore, as well as the drivers for BIPV that would lead building sector to adopt BIPV technologies. The study involved five important groups of stakeholders i.e. governmental authorities, building developers, architects, engineers, and PV/BIPV manufacturers to participate in a questionnaire survey. The results identified that on-site generation of clean energy bundled with economic benefits, Green Mark certification, and avoidance of CO2 emissions are the most influential drivers, while long-term payback period, high upfront cost, and low energy conversion efficiency are the three most substantial barriers to BIPV. Furthermore, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine whether the various stakeholder groups perceive the drivers and barriers differently. It was discovered that various stakeholder groups perceive the drivers similarly, but the significantly different opinions have been perceived on several barriers. This study provides suggestions to overcome barriers to BIPV not only in Singapore, but also other countries that aim to promote BIPV technologies.
Lu, Y., Chang, R., Shabunko, V., & Lay Yee, A. T. (2019). The implementation of building-integrated photovoltaics in Singapore: drivers versus barriers. Energy, 168, 400-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.11.099