BACKGROUND: Inflammation is often associated with several bladder dysfunctions, including overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/PBS). As such, inflammation of the bladder and the actions of inflammatory mediators may contribute to the development of urinary symptoms. This study assessed the actions of PGE2, PGF2, PGD2, TXA2, and PGI2 on urinary bladder urothelium with lamina propria (U&LP), and detrusor smooth muscle. METHODS: Studies were carried out using isolated tissue baths, where strips of porcine bladder U&LP or detrusor were exposed to varying concentrations of prostaglandin agonists (1 μM and 10 μM). RESULTS: All assessed prostaglandin agonists contracted both the U&LP and detrusor smooth muscle, with the rank order of contractile response effectiveness as: PGE2 > PGF2α > TXA2 > PGD2 > PGI2. In U&LP, treatment with PGE2 (10 μM) increased tonic contractions by 1.36 ± 0.09 g (n = 42, p < 0.001) and phasic contractions by 40.4 ± 9.6% (n = 42, p < 0.001). In response to PGF2α (10 μM), U&LP tonic contractions increased by 0.79 ± 0.06 g (n = 14, p < 0.001) and phasic activity by 13.3% ± 5.3% (n = 15, p < 0.05). In detrusor preparations, PGE2 (10 μM) increased tonic contractions by 1.32 ± 0.13 g (n = 38, p < 0.001) and PGF2α (10 μM) by 0.97 ± 0.14 g (n = 12, p < 0.001). Only 34% (n = 48) of all detrusor preparations exhibited spontaneous activity prior to the addition of any agonist at a frequency of 2.03 ± 0.12 cpm. In preparations that did not exhibit initial phasic activity, all of the prostaglandin agonists were capable of commencing phasic activity. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary bladder U&LP and detrusor respond to a variety of prostaglandin agonists, with their activation resulting in direct contractions, as well as increases to spontaneous contractile activity. This study presents the prostaglandin receptor system as a potential therapeutic target for lower urinary tract dysfunction.