Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) has been advanced as an alternative for creating indoor sensor networks that extends beyond its original long-distance communication purpose. For the present paper, we developed a Dense Indoor Sensor Network (DISN) with 390 sensor nodes and three gateways and empirically evaluated its performance for half a year. Our analysis of more than 14 million transmissions revealed that DISNs achieve a much lower distance coverage compared to previous research. In addition, the deployment of multiple gateways decreased the loss of transmissions due to environmental and network factors such as concurrently received messages. Given the complexity of our system, we received few colliding concurrent messages, which demonstrates a gap between the projected requirements of LoRaWAN systems and the actual requirements of real-world applications. Our attenuation model indicates that robust coverage in an indoor environment can be maintained by placing a gateway every 30 m and every 5 floors. We discuss the application of DISNs for the passive sensing and visualization of human presence using a Digital Twin (DT).
|Name||2021 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom 2021|