The epidemiology of injuries across the weight-training sports

Justin W L Keogh, Paul W. Winwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
66 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Objectives: Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. Methods: We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Results: Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12–0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24–1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5–6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. Conclusion: While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team sports. Future weight-training sport injury epidemiology research needs to be improved, particularly in terms of the use of prospective designs, diagnosis of injury, and changes in risk exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-501
Number of pages23
JournalSports Medicine
Volume47
Issue number3
Early online date21 Jun 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

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Sports
Epidemiology
Weights and Measures
Wounds and Injuries
Sprains and Strains
Athletic Injuries
Tendinopathy
Elbow
Wrist
Research
PubMed
Athletes
Sample Size
Publications
Knee
Language
Hand

Cite this

Keogh, Justin W L ; Winwood, Paul W. / The epidemiology of injuries across the weight-training sports. In: Sports Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 47, No. 3. pp. 479-501.
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The epidemiology of injuries across the weight-training sports. / Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W.

In: Sports Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 3, 01.03.2017, p. 479-501.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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