The purpose of this literature review is to examine and explore the research literature related to masters cycling from a social ecology framework. An exploration of health promotion research, leisure research and physical activity research supports the validity of the social ecology framework with respect to perceived benefits and constraints. Three key constraints were identified as explaining the most variance in participation in masters sport. The Cyclist Motivation Instrument provided five detailed cycling-specific factors in motivation. However, no research to date has examined the effects of age on perceived benefits and constraints to participation in masters cycling.