Advancements in technology have been a driving force in the development of medical imaging equipment. There are now multiple, varied, and intertwined imaging modalities which visualize the spine in many different formats and positions. This has facilitated an increase in accuracy of diagnosis, and then at the same time allowed medical imaging to be an essential tool, in treatment of spinal conditions. Multiple image-guided therapies are now available to assist physicians/surgeons with treatment regimens and pre- and postoperative surgical planning. This chapter will detail the above.