The protein phosphatase 2B inhibitor, FK506, is an immunomodulatory polypeptide that has neuroprotective properties, the mechanisms of which have not been elucidated. A possible mechanism may be phosphorylation-mediated regulation of glutamate transporter activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of FK506 on glutamate transporter localization and activity in the ischaemic mouse retina. FK506 did not appear to modulate the localization or activity of glutamate transporters under simulated ischaemic conditions. Our present data suggest that the mechanism by which FK506 exerts its neuroprotective action is not attributable to alterations in retinal glutamate transport.