Adverse changes in nutrition-related outcomes including quality of life (QoL) occur after PBSC transplantation. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the impact of nutrition and exercise counselling provided at hospital discharge on nutritional status, body composition and QoL post transplantation. Usual care (UC) (n=19) received no intervention after discharge; extended care (EC) (n=18) received fortnightly telephone counselling from a dietitian and exercise physiologist up to 100 days post transplantation. Nutritional status (patient-generated subjective global assessment, and diet history), QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3) and body composition (air displacement plethysmography) were assessed at pre-admission, discharge and 100 days post transplantation. Intervention groups were compared using two-sample t-tests of changes in the outcomes; results were adjusted using analysis of covariance. EC exhibited clinically important but not statistically significant increases in protein intake (14.7 g; confidence interval (CI) 95% -6.5, 35.9, P=0.165), cognitive functioning (7.2; CI 95% -7.9, 22.2, P=0.337) and social functioning (16.5; CI 95% -7.3, 40.3, P=0.165) compared with UC. Relative to pre-admission, EC experienced less weight loss than UC (-3.3 kg; CI 95% -6.7, 0.2, P=0.062). Physical activity was not significantly different between the groups. Ongoing nutrition and exercise counselling may prevent further weight loss and improve dietary intake and certain QoL components in autologous PBSC transplantation patients following hospitalisation.