Student and Classroom-Level Predictors of Keyboard-Based Writing in Early Primary

Malpique Anabela*, Debora Valcan, Deborah Pino-Pasternak, Susan Ledger, Mustafa Asil, Timothy Teo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperResearchpeer-review

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In today’s fast paced digital world, keyboard-based writing has become a key component in daily communication activities and professional working. Nonetheless, there’s a lack of systematic studies investigating keyboarding and its relationship with written products. The current study had two primary aims: 1) to examine unique student-level predictors of keyboard-based writing for Year 2 children, which included keyboarding automaticity, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), executive functioning, writing attitudes, and gender; 2) to examine classroom-level factors predicting keyboard-based writing in Year 2, such as teachers’ preparation and instructional practices for writing. The current study involved 544 Year 2 students enrolled in 47 classrooms from 17 primary schools in Western Australia. Student and classroom-level factors were evaluated using multilevel-modelling analyses. Results revealed that keyboarding automaticity, spelling, word reading, reading comprehension, general attitudes toward writing, and gender were uniquely related to keyboard-based compositional quality. Keyboarding automaticity, word reading, and gender were also uniquely related to keyboard-based compositional fluency. Results also showed that female students outperformed their male peers in keyboarding automaticity, compositional quality and fluency, but also on attitudes toward writing and reading comprehension. For classroom-level factors, findings showed time teaching keyboarding and revision strategies positively related to compositional fluency. Time teaching handwriting was negatively related to compositional quality. The novel findings from this study suggest that, to support Year 2 students’ keyboard-based writing, attention must be placed on multiple components predicting students’ writing performance, including writing and reading skills, motivational factors, and gender, as well as instructional practices promoting effective writing.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes
EventEARLI 2023 : The 20th Biennial EARLI Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction - Aristotle University and University of Macedonia , Thessaloniki, Greece
Duration: 22 Aug 202326 Aug 2023


ConferenceEARLI 2023
Internet address


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