Structures, Symbols and Meanings: Chinese and Korean Influence on Japanese Architecture

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis


This study examines the architectural interaction between China, Korea and Japan; i.e. within the area of Confucian culture. The survey begins from the prehistoric structures, focusing on the most active interaction in East Asia during the first millennium AD. It proceeds to the era of cultural disparity in the three countries from the 9th to the 12th centuries, continues by dealing with another wave of continental influences in Japan as of the 13th century and ends in the period from the 17th to 19th centuries by which distinct Japanese architectural characteristics had been fully developed. The objective is, first, to follow the development of timber architecture and the adaptation of Chinese architectural style alongside religious and other Chinese thoughts both in Korea and Japan; second, to point out the architectural differences in East Asia by examining the reasons (e.g. conditions in climate and cultural traditions) that led to these local styles; and third, to clarify the philosophical, symbolic and iconographical concepts behind East Asian architectural expression.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Helsinki University of Technology
Place of PublicationEspoo
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


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