Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are a family of redox active enzymes containing a 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ) cofactor generated from post translational modification of an active site tyrosine residue. The Arthrobacter globiformis amine oxidase (AGAO) has been widely used as a model to guide the design and development of selective inhibitors of CAOs. In this study, two aryl 2,3-butadienamine analogs, racemic 5-phenoxy-2,3- pentadienylamine (POPDA) and racemic 6-phenyl-2,3-hexadienylamine (PHDA), were synthesized and evaluated as mechanism-based inactivators of AGAO. Crystal structures show that both compounds form a covalent adduct with the amino group of the substrate-reduced TPQ, and that the chemical structures of the rac-PHDA and rac-POPDA modified TPQ differ by the allenic carbon that is attached to the cofactor. A chemical mechanism accounting for the formation of the respective TPQ derivative is proposed. Under steady-state conditions, no recovery of enzyme activity is detected when AGAO pre-treated with rac-PHDA or rac-POPDA is diluted with excess amount of the benzylamine substrate (100-fold K m). Comparing the IC50 values further reveals that the phenoxy substituent in POPDA offers an approximately 4-fold increase in inhibition potency, which can be attributed to a favourable binding interaction between the oxygen atom in the phenoxy group and the active site of AGAO as revealed by crystallographic studies. This hypothesis is corroborated by the observed > 3-fold higher partition ratio of PHDA compared to POPDA. Taken together, the results presented in this study reveal the mechanism by which aryl 2,3-butadienamines act as mechanism-based inhibitors of AGAO, and the potency of enzyme inactivation could be fine-tuned by optimizing binding interaction between the aryl substituent and the enzyme active site.
|Number of pages
|Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics
|Published - May 2011