The building sector is the second-largest energy consumer in China. With the proposal to reach a carbon peak by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, China attaches more importance to the energy conservation and emission reduction of the residential sector. To study the connection between socioeconomic factors and residential energy consumption (REC), this paper collects the data of 13 prefecture-level cities in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2001 to 2019 to explore the REC impact factors by the STIRPAT model. The factors for modeling are identified from relevant studies and weighted by the independent weight coefficient method (IWCM). The regression result shows that the average number of persons per household, per capita housing construction area, urbanization rate, and cooling degree days have a significant positive impact on REC, while a negative correlation is found between per capita housing construction area, residential water consumption, and residential liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption. Strategies of energy conservation and emission reduction in residential building sector are explored based on the demonstration of the future REC pattern evolution and the changes in its impact factors.