The capacity to make reliable inductive statements about populations is critical for the advancement of scientific knowledge. An important contribution to that advancement of knowledge is determining that effects are either present or not present in populations. Statistical power is an important methodological qualification for any research that presents statistical results, and particularly so for research that presents null results. In this paper we describe the statistical concept of power, outline parameters of research that influence it, and demonstrate how it is calculated. With reference to selected published research, attention is drawn to the problems associated with a body of underpowered research, one being that population effects may go undetected. One way to prevent this problem is to calculate power a priori in planning research and include confidence intervals when presenting the results of research. However, it is difficult, if not impossible in many cases, to obtain high participant numbers for communication disorders of low prevalence such as stuttering. With this in mind, the paper concludes with an attempt to open discussion about ways to redress the problems associated with statistical power.