|Title of host publication||The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies|
|Editors||S Romaniuk, M Thapa, P Marton|
|Place of Publication||Cham|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 12 Nov 2019|
A security deficit essentially refers to a threat. It can be on different scales from sub-national to national and global. Threats come in various forms, not only military, but also societal, economic, political and cultural. Further adding to the complexity of what is a threat – and hence what constitutes a security deficit – the scale and form of threats need not be distinct but can impact on, or overlap, one another. The impact of climate change, for example, may be analysed at global and local levels, as well as its economic and policy implications. Unlike traditional threats, where military force is used against an adversary, non-traditional security threats – like climate change, transnational crime, politically motivated violence or economic crises – are often depicted in human security terms.