Müller cells (MCs), the major type of glial cell of the vertebrate retina, have a vital role in retinal physiology and pathology. They provide structural and functional support for retinal neurons, including photoreceptors, and are implicated in various retinal diseases. Primary and immortalized MCs are important experimental tools for MC research. Here we present high throughput RNA sequencing data of 3 populations of cultured rat MCs: primary cells, the spontaneously immortalized rat MC line, SIRMu-1, and the SV40-transformed rat MC line, rMC-1. These data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO ID: GSE123161). For data analysis, interpretation and discussion, please refer to the research article, “Characterization of the novel spontaneously immortalized rat Müller cell line SIRMu-1” (Kittipassorn et al., 2019). This dataset is valuable for gaining insight into gene expression profiles of different types of cultured MCs and the roles of MCs in health and disease.