Recreational Snow-Sports Injury Risk Factors and Countermeasures: A Meta-Analysis Review and Haddon Matrix Evaluation

Patria A. Hume, Anna V. Lorimer, Peter C. Griffiths, Isaac Carlson, Mike Lamont

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. Objective: For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Methods: Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. Results: More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90 % CI 2.15–3.44, 99 % most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90 % CI 2.08–3.40, 99 % harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90 % CI 1.98–3.37, 99 % harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90 % CI 1.43–5.07, 97 % harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90 % CI 0.51–0.66, 99 % most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90 % CI 0.23–0.47, 99 % beneficial). Discussion: The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon’s matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Conclusion: Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures in recreational snow sports was for the use of helmets and wrist guards and to address low visibility issues via weather reports and signage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1175-1190
Number of pages16
JournalSports Medicine
Volume45
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Snow Sports
Athletic Injuries
Meta-Analysis
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Wounds and Injuries
Skiing
Head Protective Devices
Weather
Wrist
Wrist Injuries
Snow
Craniocerebral Trauma
Causality
Databases

Cite this

Hume, Patria A. ; Lorimer, Anna V. ; Griffiths, Peter C. ; Carlson, Isaac ; Lamont, Mike. / Recreational Snow-Sports Injury Risk Factors and Countermeasures : A Meta-Analysis Review and Haddon Matrix Evaluation. In: Sports Medicine. 2015 ; Vol. 45, No. 8. pp. 1175-1190.
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title = "Recreational Snow-Sports Injury Risk Factors and Countermeasures: A Meta-Analysis Review and Haddon Matrix Evaluation",
abstract = "Background: Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. Objective: For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Methods: Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90 {\%} confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. Results: More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90 {\%} CI 2.15–3.44, 99 {\%} most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90 {\%} CI 2.08–3.40, 99 {\%} harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90 {\%} CI 1.98–3.37, 99 {\%} harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90 {\%} CI 1.43–5.07, 97 {\%} harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90 {\%} CI 0.51–0.66, 99 {\%} most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90 {\%} CI 0.23–0.47, 99 {\%} beneficial). Discussion: The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon’s matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Conclusion: Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures in recreational snow sports was for the use of helmets and wrist guards and to address low visibility issues via weather reports and signage.",
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Recreational Snow-Sports Injury Risk Factors and Countermeasures : A Meta-Analysis Review and Haddon Matrix Evaluation. / Hume, Patria A.; Lorimer, Anna V.; Griffiths, Peter C.; Carlson, Isaac; Lamont, Mike.

In: Sports Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 8, 28.08.2015, p. 1175-1190.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Recreational Snow-Sports Injury Risk Factors and Countermeasures

T2 - A Meta-Analysis Review and Haddon Matrix Evaluation

AU - Hume, Patria A.

AU - Lorimer, Anna V.

AU - Griffiths, Peter C.

AU - Carlson, Isaac

AU - Lamont, Mike

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Y1 - 2015/8/28

N2 - Background: Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. Objective: For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Methods: Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. Results: More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90 % CI 2.15–3.44, 99 % most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90 % CI 2.08–3.40, 99 % harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90 % CI 1.98–3.37, 99 % harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90 % CI 1.43–5.07, 97 % harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90 % CI 0.51–0.66, 99 % most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90 % CI 0.23–0.47, 99 % beneficial). Discussion: The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon’s matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Conclusion: Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures in recreational snow sports was for the use of helmets and wrist guards and to address low visibility issues via weather reports and signage.

AB - Background: Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. Objective: For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Methods: Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. Results: More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90 % CI 2.15–3.44, 99 % most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90 % CI 2.08–3.40, 99 % harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90 % CI 1.98–3.37, 99 % harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90 % CI 1.43–5.07, 97 % harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90 % CI 0.51–0.66, 99 % most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90 % CI 0.23–0.47, 99 % beneficial). Discussion: The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon’s matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Conclusion: Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures in recreational snow sports was for the use of helmets and wrist guards and to address low visibility issues via weather reports and signage.

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