Quality pharmacy services and key performance indicators in Polish NICUs: a Delphi approach

Natalia Krzyżaniak*, Iga Pawłowska, Beata Bajorek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
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Currently, there is no literature describing what a quality level of practice entails in Polish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), nor are there any means of currently measuring the quality of pharmaceutical care provided to NICU patients. 


To identify a set of essential pharmacist roles and pharmacy-relevant key performance indicators (KPI’s) suitable for Polish neonatal intensive units (NICUs). Setting Polish hospital pharmacies and NICUs. 


Using a modified Delphi technique, potential KPI’s structured along Donabedian’s domains as well as pharmacy services were presented to an expert panel of stakeholders. Two online, consecutive Delphi rounds, were completed by panellists between August and September 2017. 

Main outcome measure 

To identify the minimum level of pharmacy services that should be consistently provided to NICU patients. 


A total of 16 panellists contributed to the expert panel. Overall, consensus of 75% was reached for 23 indicators and for 28 roles. When considering pharmacy services for the NICU, the experts were found to highly value traditional pharmacy roles, such as dispensing and extemporaneous compounding, however, they were still eager for roles in the other domains, such as educational and clinical services, to be listed as essential for NICU practice. Panellists were found to positively value the list of indicators presented, and excluded only 9 out of the total list. 


There is a need for future research to establish a minimum standard of practice for Polish pharmacists to encourage the progression and standardisation of hospital pharmacy services to meet the level of practice seen in NICUs worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)533-542
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes


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