Probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic and fermented food supplementation in psychiatric disorders: A systematic review of clinical trials

Carlos Ribera, Joan Vicent Sánchez-Ortí, Gerard Clarke, Wolfgang Marx, Sabrina Mörkl, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

The use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics or fermented foods can modulate the gut-brain axis and constitute a potentially therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders. This systematic review aims to identify current evidence regarding these interventions in the treatment of patients with DSM/ICD psychiatric diagnoses. Forty-seven articles from 42 studies met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was assessed in all included studies. Major depression was the most studied disorder (n = 19 studies). Studies frequently focused on schizophrenia (n = 11) and bipolar disorder (n = 5) and there were limited studies in anorexia nervosa (n = 4), ADHD (n = 3), Tourette (n = 1), insomnia (n = 1), PTSD (n = 1) and generalized anxiety disorder (n = 1). Except in MDD, current evidence does not clarify the role of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of mental illness. Several studies point to an improvement in the immune and inflammatory profile (e.g. CRP, IL6), which may be a relevant mechanism of action of the therapeutic response identified in these studies. Future research should consider lifestyle and dietary habits of patients as possible confounders that may influence inter-individual treatment response.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105561
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume158
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024
Externally publishedYes

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