Primary School Teachers’ Adaptations for Struggling Writers: Survey Study of Grade 1 to 6 Teachers in Australia

Anabela Malpique, Deborah Pino-Pasternak, Debora Valcan, Mustafa Asil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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Two hundred ninety-eight primary teachers (88% female) from across all Australian states and territories reported on the frequency with which they implemented instructional adaptations for struggling writers in their classrooms. They also rated their preparation and self-efficacy for teaching writing. The majority of participating teachers indicated they provided additional instruction on spelling, capitalization and punctuation, and sentence construction at least once a week or more often. Teachers further reported implementing additional minilessons and reteaching strategies and skills, as well as extra instruction on grammar, handwriting, text structure, revising, and planning on a monthly basis or more often. The majority of teachers reported never or only once a year using adaptations to support digital writing. The frequency with which teachers provided extra instruction on spelling, handwriting, text structure, revising, and computer use differed by grade. Only teachers’ perceived efficacy to teach writing made a unique and statistically significant contribution to predicting the use of instructional adaptations for writing and adaptations to support digital writing after controlling for teacher and classroom variables.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2023


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