Plasma free amino acid responses to intraduodenal whey protein, and relationships with insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and Energy intake in lean healthy men

Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh*, Amy T. Hutchison, Stijn Soenen, Robert E. Steinert, Peter M. Clifton, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
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This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0-;60min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R2 range, 0.61-0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02-0.54) and conditional (0.006-0.64) AAs. The AUC0-60min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0-60min of insulin (R2 range 0.3-0.6), GLP-1 (0.2-0.6) and energy intake (0.09-0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes


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