Plasma free amino acid responses to intraduodenal whey protein, and relationships with insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and Energy intake in lean healthy men

Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh*, Amy T. Hutchison, Stijn Soenen, Robert E. Steinert, Peter M. Clifton, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0-;60min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R2 range, 0.61-0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02-0.54) and conditional (0.006-0.64) AAs. The AUC0-60min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0-60min of insulin (R2 range 0.3-0.6), GLP-1 (0.2-0.6) and energy intake (0.09-0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalNutrients
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes

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