Pharmacology of the internal anal sphincter and its relevance to faecal incontinence

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

1 The internal anal sphincter (IAS) has a spontaneous tone and is the main contributor to the maintenance of faecal continence. The spontaneous resting tone exhibited by the sphincter can be modified by neurotransmitters from the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. 2 In this review, the influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on IAS tone are discussed and the putative roles of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and adenosine triphosphate in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic transmission are considered. 3 Faecal incontinence is a common condition that places a heavy financial burden on the health service and severely affects patients' quality of life. Resting anal pressure is reduced in patients with faecal incontinence and agents that increase sphincter tone tend to relieve symptoms. The results of clinical studies of the use of phenylephrine to treat faecal incontinence are reviewed. 4 It is concluded that the IAS is a potential target for drug development for the treatment of faecal incontinence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-95
Number of pages11
JournalAutonomic and Autacoid Pharmacology
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2009

Fingerprint

Fecal Incontinence
Anal Canal
Pharmacology
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Enteric Nervous System
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Phenylephrine
Carbon Monoxide
Health Services
Neurotransmitter Agents
Nitric Oxide
Adenosine Triphosphate
Maintenance
Quality of Life
Pressure
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Therapeutics

Cite this

@article{5eca23a979544e62891a8c544adba117,
title = "Pharmacology of the internal anal sphincter and its relevance to faecal incontinence",
abstract = "1 The internal anal sphincter (IAS) has a spontaneous tone and is the main contributor to the maintenance of faecal continence. The spontaneous resting tone exhibited by the sphincter can be modified by neurotransmitters from the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. 2 In this review, the influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on IAS tone are discussed and the putative roles of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and adenosine triphosphate in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic transmission are considered. 3 Faecal incontinence is a common condition that places a heavy financial burden on the health service and severely affects patients' quality of life. Resting anal pressure is reduced in patients with faecal incontinence and agents that increase sphincter tone tend to relieve symptoms. The results of clinical studies of the use of phenylephrine to treat faecal incontinence are reviewed. 4 It is concluded that the IAS is a potential target for drug development for the treatment of faecal incontinence.",
author = "K. Mills and R. Chess-Williams",
year = "2009",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1111/j.1474-8673.2009.00437.x",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "85--95",
journal = "Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology",
issn = "0144-1795",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "3",

}

Pharmacology of the internal anal sphincter and its relevance to faecal incontinence. / Mills, K.; Chess-Williams, R.

In: Autonomic and Autacoid Pharmacology, Vol. 29, No. 3, 07.2009, p. 85-95.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmacology of the internal anal sphincter and its relevance to faecal incontinence

AU - Mills, K.

AU - Chess-Williams, R.

PY - 2009/7

Y1 - 2009/7

N2 - 1 The internal anal sphincter (IAS) has a spontaneous tone and is the main contributor to the maintenance of faecal continence. The spontaneous resting tone exhibited by the sphincter can be modified by neurotransmitters from the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. 2 In this review, the influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on IAS tone are discussed and the putative roles of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and adenosine triphosphate in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic transmission are considered. 3 Faecal incontinence is a common condition that places a heavy financial burden on the health service and severely affects patients' quality of life. Resting anal pressure is reduced in patients with faecal incontinence and agents that increase sphincter tone tend to relieve symptoms. The results of clinical studies of the use of phenylephrine to treat faecal incontinence are reviewed. 4 It is concluded that the IAS is a potential target for drug development for the treatment of faecal incontinence.

AB - 1 The internal anal sphincter (IAS) has a spontaneous tone and is the main contributor to the maintenance of faecal continence. The spontaneous resting tone exhibited by the sphincter can be modified by neurotransmitters from the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. 2 In this review, the influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on IAS tone are discussed and the putative roles of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and adenosine triphosphate in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic transmission are considered. 3 Faecal incontinence is a common condition that places a heavy financial burden on the health service and severely affects patients' quality of life. Resting anal pressure is reduced in patients with faecal incontinence and agents that increase sphincter tone tend to relieve symptoms. The results of clinical studies of the use of phenylephrine to treat faecal incontinence are reviewed. 4 It is concluded that the IAS is a potential target for drug development for the treatment of faecal incontinence.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=67651055736&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1474-8673.2009.00437.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1474-8673.2009.00437.x

M3 - Review article

VL - 29

SP - 85

EP - 95

JO - Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology

JF - Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology

SN - 0144-1795

IS - 3

ER -