Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by frequent exacerbations.
Purpose: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness and adverse events (AEs) of pharmacologic interventions for adults with exacerbation of COPD.
Data Sources: English-language searches of several bibliographic sources from database inception to 2 January 2019.
Study Selection: 68 randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults with exacerbation of COPD treated in out- or inpatient settings other than intensive care and compared pharmacologic therapies with placebo, "usual care," or other pharmacologic interventions.
Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted data and rated study quality and strength of evidence (SOE).
Data Synthesis: Compared with placebo or management without antibiotics, antibiotics given for 3 to 14 days were associated with increased exacerbation resolution at the end of the intervention (odds ratio [OR], 2.03 [95% CI, 1.47 to 2.80]; moderate SOE) and less treatment failure at the end of the intervention (OR, 0.54 [CI, 0.34 to 0.86]; moderate SOE), independent of severity of exacerbations in out- and inpatients. Compared with placebo in out- and inpatients, systemic corticosteroids given for 9 to 56 days were associated with less treatment failure at the end of the intervention (OR, 0.01 [CI, 0.00 to 0.13]; low SOE) but also with a higher number of total and endocrine-related AEs. Compared with placebo or usual care in inpatients, other pharmacologic interventions (aminophyllines, magnesium sulfate, anti-inflammatory agents, inhaled corticosteroids, and short-acting bronchodilators) had insufficient evidence, showing either no or inconclusive effects (with the exception of the mucolytic erdosteine) or improvement only in lung function.
Limitation: Scant evidence for many interventions; several studies had unclear or high risk of bias and inadequate reporting of AEs.
Conclusion: Antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids reduce treatment failure in adults with mild to severe exacerbation of COPD.
Primary Funding Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (PROSPERO: CRD42018111609).