The mammalian spleen is a peripheral lymphoid organ that plays a central role in host defense. Consequently, the lack of spleen is often associated with immunodeficiency and increased risk of overwhelming infections. Growing evidence suggests that non-hematopoietic stromal cells are central players in spleen development, organization, and immune functions. In addition to its immunological role, the spleen also provides a site for extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in response to injuries. A deeper understanding of the biology of stromal cells is therefore essential to fully comprehend how these cells modulate the immune system during normal and pathological conditions. Here, we review the specificities of the different mouse spleen stromal cell subsets and complement the murine studies with human data when available.