The definition of endurance sports is often vague but typically covers events ranging from ~ 60 min of continuous exercise up to multi-day/multi-stage competition. Figure 1 provides an example of classical sporting events that are encompassed within this range. The “entry point” involves races of ~60-80 minutes such as sprint triathlon events, half marathons and cycling time trials, while events such as the Olympic distance triathlon and the marathon involve sustained high intensity work rates over ~ 2 hours by elite competitors. Half ironman and ironman triathlons, ocean ski races, 24 h mountain bike races and 100km trail runs are examples of events of 4-24 h duration which are typically termed ultra-endurance. All these events are continuous races and as they become longer and more reliant on nutrition support during the race, athletes have to juggle their nutritional needs with the event-specific opportunities for fluid and food intake while exercising. Multiple day events can be continuous (i.e. Race Across America cycle race) or staged (i.e. Tour De France) and provide a further range of challenges to athletes and support crew to meet daily food and fluid requirements. These obstacles are highlighted in extreme ultra endurance sporting feats such as cycling around the globe or running from Pole to Pole (Figure 1). Not surprisingly, optimal performance in endurance sports requires a range of nutritional strategies to support training and to meet often substantial nutrient needs during the event itself. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the nutrition guidelines for training and competing in such events, with emphasis on information that has become evident over the past 2 years.
|Translated title of the contribution
|Nutrition for Endurance Training and Competition
|Title of host publication
|Endurance Training: Science and Practice
|Place of Publication
|Inigo Mujika S.L.U.
|Number of pages
|Published - 2012