A fracture, being an acquired rupture or break of the bone, is a significant and debilitating injury commonly seen among athletes and military personnel. Stress fractures, which have a repetitive stress aetiology, are highly prevalent among military populations, especially those undergoing training. The primary aim of this review is to identify non-modifiable risk factors for stress fractures in military personnel undergoing training. A systematic search was conducted of three major databases to identify studies that explored risk factors for stress fractures in military trainees. Critical appraisal, data extraction, and a narrative synthesis were conducted. Sixteen articles met the eligibility criteria for the study. Key non-modifiable risk factors identified were prior stress fracture and menstrual dysfunction, while advancing age and race other than black race may be a risk factor. To reduce the incidence of stress fractures in military trainees, mitigating modifiable risk factors among individuals with non-modifiable risk factors (e.g., optimising conditioning for older trainees) or better accommodating non-modifiable factors (for example, extending training periods and reducing intensity to facilitate recovery and adaptation) are suggested, with focus on groups at increased risk identified in this review.
|Number of pages
|International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
|Early online date
|31 Dec 2021
|Published - 2022