Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

B. M. Carruthers, M. I. Van de Sande, K. L. De Meirleir, Nancy G Klimas, G. Broderick, T. Mitchell, D. R. Staines, A. C P Powles, N. Speight, R. Vallings, L. Bateman, B. Baumgarten-Austrheim, D. S. Bell, N. Carlo-Stella, J. Chia, A. Darragh, D. Jo, D. Lewis, A. R. Light, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik & 6 others I. Mena, J. A. Mikovits, K. Miwa, M. Murovska, M. L. Pall, Sarah L Stevens

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

341 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The label 'chronic fatigue syndrome' (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term 'myalgic encephalomyelitis' (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the expression and interpretation of symptoms. Clinical and research application guidelines promote optimal recognition of ME by primary physicians and other healthcare providers, improve the consistency of diagnoses in adult and paediatric patients internationally and facilitate clearer identification of patients for research studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-338
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Internal Medicine
Volume270
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Teaching
Research
International Classification of Diseases
PubMed
Health Personnel
Publications
Research Personnel
Organizations
Guidelines
Pediatrics
Inflammation
Physicians

Cite this

Carruthers, B. M., Van de Sande, M. I., De Meirleir, K. L., Klimas, N. G., Broderick, G., Mitchell, T., ... Stevens, S. L. (2011). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria. Journal of Internal Medicine, 270(4), 327-338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x
Carruthers, B. M. ; Van de Sande, M. I. ; De Meirleir, K. L. ; Klimas, Nancy G ; Broderick, G. ; Mitchell, T. ; Staines, D. R. ; Powles, A. C P ; Speight, N. ; Vallings, R. ; Bateman, L. ; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B. ; Bell, D. S. ; Carlo-Stella, N. ; Chia, J. ; Darragh, A. ; Jo, D. ; Lewis, D. ; Light, A. R. ; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya ; Mena, I. ; Mikovits, J. A. ; Miwa, K. ; Murovska, M. ; Pall, M. L. ; Stevens, Sarah L. / Myalgic encephalomyelitis : International Consensus Criteria. In: Journal of Internal Medicine. 2011 ; Vol. 270, No. 4. pp. 327-338.
@article{2a6d8e3e4371485ba7993b54e1998f4b,
title = "Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria",
abstract = "The label 'chronic fatigue syndrome' (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term 'myalgic encephalomyelitis' (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100{\%} consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the expression and interpretation of symptoms. Clinical and research application guidelines promote optimal recognition of ME by primary physicians and other healthcare providers, improve the consistency of diagnoses in adult and paediatric patients internationally and facilitate clearer identification of patients for research studies.",
author = "Carruthers, {B. M.} and {Van de Sande}, {M. I.} and {De Meirleir}, {K. L.} and Klimas, {Nancy G} and G. Broderick and T. Mitchell and Staines, {D. R.} and Powles, {A. C P} and N. Speight and R. Vallings and L. Bateman and B. Baumgarten-Austrheim and Bell, {D. S.} and N. Carlo-Stella and J. Chia and A. Darragh and D. Jo and D. Lewis and Light, {A. R.} and Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik and I. Mena and Mikovits, {J. A.} and K. Miwa and M. Murovska and Pall, {M. L.} and Stevens, {Sarah L}",
year = "2011",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x",
language = "English",
volume = "270",
pages = "327--338",
journal = "Acta Medica Scandinavica",
issn = "0954-6820",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "4",

}

Carruthers, BM, Van de Sande, MI, De Meirleir, KL, Klimas, NG, Broderick, G, Mitchell, T, Staines, DR, Powles, ACP, Speight, N, Vallings, R, Bateman, L, Baumgarten-Austrheim, B, Bell, DS, Carlo-Stella, N, Chia, J, Darragh, A, Jo, D, Lewis, D, Light, AR, Marshall-Gradisnik, S, Mena, I, Mikovits, JA, Miwa, K, Murovska, M, Pall, ML & Stevens, SL 2011, 'Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria' Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 270, no. 4, pp. 327-338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x

Myalgic encephalomyelitis : International Consensus Criteria. / Carruthers, B. M.; Van de Sande, M. I.; De Meirleir, K. L.; Klimas, Nancy G; Broderick, G.; Mitchell, T.; Staines, D. R.; Powles, A. C P; Speight, N.; Vallings, R.; Bateman, L.; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B.; Bell, D. S.; Carlo-Stella, N.; Chia, J.; Darragh, A.; Jo, D.; Lewis, D.; Light, A. R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Mena, I.; Mikovits, J. A.; Miwa, K.; Murovska, M.; Pall, M. L.; Stevens, Sarah L.

In: Journal of Internal Medicine, Vol. 270, No. 4, 10.2011, p. 327-338.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Myalgic encephalomyelitis

T2 - International Consensus Criteria

AU - Carruthers, B. M.

AU - Van de Sande, M. I.

AU - De Meirleir, K. L.

AU - Klimas, Nancy G

AU - Broderick, G.

AU - Mitchell, T.

AU - Staines, D. R.

AU - Powles, A. C P

AU - Speight, N.

AU - Vallings, R.

AU - Bateman, L.

AU - Baumgarten-Austrheim, B.

AU - Bell, D. S.

AU - Carlo-Stella, N.

AU - Chia, J.

AU - Darragh, A.

AU - Jo, D.

AU - Lewis, D.

AU - Light, A. R.

AU - Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya

AU - Mena, I.

AU - Mikovits, J. A.

AU - Miwa, K.

AU - Murovska, M.

AU - Pall, M. L.

AU - Stevens, Sarah L

PY - 2011/10

Y1 - 2011/10

N2 - The label 'chronic fatigue syndrome' (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term 'myalgic encephalomyelitis' (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the expression and interpretation of symptoms. Clinical and research application guidelines promote optimal recognition of ME by primary physicians and other healthcare providers, improve the consistency of diagnoses in adult and paediatric patients internationally and facilitate clearer identification of patients for research studies.

AB - The label 'chronic fatigue syndrome' (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term 'myalgic encephalomyelitis' (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the expression and interpretation of symptoms. Clinical and research application guidelines promote optimal recognition of ME by primary physicians and other healthcare providers, improve the consistency of diagnoses in adult and paediatric patients internationally and facilitate clearer identification of patients for research studies.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052963671&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x

M3 - Review article

VL - 270

SP - 327

EP - 338

JO - Acta Medica Scandinavica

JF - Acta Medica Scandinavica

SN - 0954-6820

IS - 4

ER -

Carruthers BM, Van de Sande MI, De Meirleir KL, Klimas NG, Broderick G, Mitchell T et al. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2011 Oct;270(4):327-338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02428.x