Regional conflict, growing technological developments, and climate change have seen high migration rates, which are likely to rise. Discrimination and violence at the hands of host societies continue to threaten the well-being of immigrant communities, as well as wider social cohesion in migration destinations. The urgency of the situation has been highlighted in several international policy documents released since 2020 by the United Nations (UN) and related agencies. In response, we have seen a global movement of intercultural music ensembles intended to break down cultural barriers and explore sites of cultural intersection, yet the real-world benefits of such initiatives remain unclear. There is a need to further explore and understand how and when music can be used as an instrument or site for fostering inclusion, understanding, and cohesion between migrants and their host communities. On appraising the evidence, we propose a conceptual framework for explaining how different cultures can interact with each other through musical participation.