Muscarinic receptor subtypes of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract

Toshimitsu Uchiyama, Russell Chess-Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

80 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for maintaining normal intestinal and bladder function, contracting the smooth muscle by releasing the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP and relaxing sphincters by releasing nitric oxide. ACh is the main transmitter released and smooth muscle contraction is mediated via a mixed M2/M3 receptor population; M3 receptors acting via phospholipase C and M2 receptors acting via inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In ileal, colonic, gastric and bladder (detrusor) smooth muscle the density of M2 receptors is far greater than the density of M3 receptors, the M2:M3 ratio being 3:1 in most species including man. Despite the predominance of M2-receptors, direct contraction of intestinal and detrusor smooth muscle is mediated via the M3-receptor subtype and only this subtype is involved in contraction in vitro. Furthermore, knocking out the M3-receptor gene can have severe consequences on intestinal and bladder responses. In some tissues however M2-receptors may mediate an indirect "re-contraction" whereby a reduction in adenylate cyclase activity reverses the relaxation induced by β-adrenoceptor stimulation. Thus, intestinal and bladder responses to muscarinic agonists are slightly depressed in M2 receptor knockout mice. The role of receptor subtypes in disease is unclear, but an enhancement of M2 receptor mediated responses has been reported to occur in diabetes. Animal models suggest that M2 receptors may play a greater role in some situations such as in the denervated bladder and intestine. In human disease the mechanisms operating are not so clear. Detrusor sensitivity to muscarinic agonists is enhanced in the neurogenic overactive bladder, but there is controversy surrounding the role of M2 receptors and conflicting results have been reported. Thus, the main muscarinic receptor mediating contraction in normal smooth muscle is the M3 receptor, but M2 receptors are also present and possibly may have an enhanced role in disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-247
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Smooth Muscle Research
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Muscarinic Receptors
Smooth Muscle
Gastrointestinal Tract
Urinary Bladder
Muscarinic Agonists
Adenylyl Cyclases
Acetylcholine
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Overactive Urinary Bladder
Neurogenic Urinary Bladder
Type C Phospholipases
Muscle Contraction
Knockout Mice
Adrenergic Receptors
Intestines
Neurotransmitter Agents
Stomach
Nitric Oxide
Animal Models
Adenosine Triphosphate

Cite this

@article{fe6df0ae04c44e3bb5ddcc5f914c9bd7,
title = "Muscarinic receptor subtypes of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract",
abstract = "The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for maintaining normal intestinal and bladder function, contracting the smooth muscle by releasing the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP and relaxing sphincters by releasing nitric oxide. ACh is the main transmitter released and smooth muscle contraction is mediated via a mixed M2/M3 receptor population; M3 receptors acting via phospholipase C and M2 receptors acting via inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In ileal, colonic, gastric and bladder (detrusor) smooth muscle the density of M2 receptors is far greater than the density of M3 receptors, the M2:M3 ratio being 3:1 in most species including man. Despite the predominance of M2-receptors, direct contraction of intestinal and detrusor smooth muscle is mediated via the M3-receptor subtype and only this subtype is involved in contraction in vitro. Furthermore, knocking out the M3-receptor gene can have severe consequences on intestinal and bladder responses. In some tissues however M2-receptors may mediate an indirect {"}re-contraction{"} whereby a reduction in adenylate cyclase activity reverses the relaxation induced by β-adrenoceptor stimulation. Thus, intestinal and bladder responses to muscarinic agonists are slightly depressed in M2 receptor knockout mice. The role of receptor subtypes in disease is unclear, but an enhancement of M2 receptor mediated responses has been reported to occur in diabetes. Animal models suggest that M2 receptors may play a greater role in some situations such as in the denervated bladder and intestine. In human disease the mechanisms operating are not so clear. Detrusor sensitivity to muscarinic agonists is enhanced in the neurogenic overactive bladder, but there is controversy surrounding the role of M2 receptors and conflicting results have been reported. Thus, the main muscarinic receptor mediating contraction in normal smooth muscle is the M3 receptor, but M2 receptors are also present and possibly may have an enhanced role in disease.",
author = "Toshimitsu Uchiyama and Russell Chess-Williams",
year = "2004",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1540/jsmr.40.237",
language = "English",
volume = "40",
pages = "237--247",
journal = "Japanese Journal of Smooth Muscle Research",
issn = "0916-8737",
publisher = "Japan Society of Smooth Muscle Research",
number = "6",

}

Muscarinic receptor subtypes of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract. / Uchiyama, Toshimitsu; Chess-Williams, Russell.

In: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, 12.2004, p. 237-247.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Muscarinic receptor subtypes of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract

AU - Uchiyama, Toshimitsu

AU - Chess-Williams, Russell

PY - 2004/12

Y1 - 2004/12

N2 - The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for maintaining normal intestinal and bladder function, contracting the smooth muscle by releasing the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP and relaxing sphincters by releasing nitric oxide. ACh is the main transmitter released and smooth muscle contraction is mediated via a mixed M2/M3 receptor population; M3 receptors acting via phospholipase C and M2 receptors acting via inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In ileal, colonic, gastric and bladder (detrusor) smooth muscle the density of M2 receptors is far greater than the density of M3 receptors, the M2:M3 ratio being 3:1 in most species including man. Despite the predominance of M2-receptors, direct contraction of intestinal and detrusor smooth muscle is mediated via the M3-receptor subtype and only this subtype is involved in contraction in vitro. Furthermore, knocking out the M3-receptor gene can have severe consequences on intestinal and bladder responses. In some tissues however M2-receptors may mediate an indirect "re-contraction" whereby a reduction in adenylate cyclase activity reverses the relaxation induced by β-adrenoceptor stimulation. Thus, intestinal and bladder responses to muscarinic agonists are slightly depressed in M2 receptor knockout mice. The role of receptor subtypes in disease is unclear, but an enhancement of M2 receptor mediated responses has been reported to occur in diabetes. Animal models suggest that M2 receptors may play a greater role in some situations such as in the denervated bladder and intestine. In human disease the mechanisms operating are not so clear. Detrusor sensitivity to muscarinic agonists is enhanced in the neurogenic overactive bladder, but there is controversy surrounding the role of M2 receptors and conflicting results have been reported. Thus, the main muscarinic receptor mediating contraction in normal smooth muscle is the M3 receptor, but M2 receptors are also present and possibly may have an enhanced role in disease.

AB - The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for maintaining normal intestinal and bladder function, contracting the smooth muscle by releasing the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP and relaxing sphincters by releasing nitric oxide. ACh is the main transmitter released and smooth muscle contraction is mediated via a mixed M2/M3 receptor population; M3 receptors acting via phospholipase C and M2 receptors acting via inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In ileal, colonic, gastric and bladder (detrusor) smooth muscle the density of M2 receptors is far greater than the density of M3 receptors, the M2:M3 ratio being 3:1 in most species including man. Despite the predominance of M2-receptors, direct contraction of intestinal and detrusor smooth muscle is mediated via the M3-receptor subtype and only this subtype is involved in contraction in vitro. Furthermore, knocking out the M3-receptor gene can have severe consequences on intestinal and bladder responses. In some tissues however M2-receptors may mediate an indirect "re-contraction" whereby a reduction in adenylate cyclase activity reverses the relaxation induced by β-adrenoceptor stimulation. Thus, intestinal and bladder responses to muscarinic agonists are slightly depressed in M2 receptor knockout mice. The role of receptor subtypes in disease is unclear, but an enhancement of M2 receptor mediated responses has been reported to occur in diabetes. Animal models suggest that M2 receptors may play a greater role in some situations such as in the denervated bladder and intestine. In human disease the mechanisms operating are not so clear. Detrusor sensitivity to muscarinic agonists is enhanced in the neurogenic overactive bladder, but there is controversy surrounding the role of M2 receptors and conflicting results have been reported. Thus, the main muscarinic receptor mediating contraction in normal smooth muscle is the M3 receptor, but M2 receptors are also present and possibly may have an enhanced role in disease.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=14944342198&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1540/jsmr.40.237

DO - 10.1540/jsmr.40.237

M3 - Review article

VL - 40

SP - 237

EP - 247

JO - Japanese Journal of Smooth Muscle Research

JF - Japanese Journal of Smooth Muscle Research

SN - 0916-8737

IS - 6

ER -