Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a management tool of global interest for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Much of the research attention focused on MPAs is directed towards the cost and benefits of MPAs on commercial fisheries. This chapter compares the development and implementation of MPAs in Australia and the Mediterranean and their potential impacts on the recreational fishing sector. These two contrasting regions differ significantly with respect to bio-physical characteristics, governance arrangements, environmental pressures, experience with MPAs and recreational fishing standpoints. These differences have led to differences in definitions of MPAs and in the development and implementation of MPAs. In both regions, the impact of MPAs on recreational fishing businesses has not been thoroughly analysed and warrants further detailed analysis. Local economies dependent on recreational fishing may suffer when MPAs are of a size and in locations that do not leave significant fishing areas that can still be accessed.