Objective: Obesity associated with atypical antipsychotic medications is an important clinical issue for people with schizophrenia. The purpose of this project was to determine whether there were any differences in resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) between men with schizophrenia and controls. Method: Thirty-one men with schizophrenia were individually matched for age and relative body weight with healthy, sedentary controls. Deuterium dilution was used to determine total body water and subsequently fat-free mass (FFM). Indirect calorimetry using a Deltatrac metabolic cart was used to determine REE and RQ. Results: When corrected for FFM, there was no significant difference in REE between the groups. However, fasting RQ was significantly higher in the men with schizophrenia than the controls. Conclusion: Men with schizophrenia oxidised proportionally less fat and more carbohydrate under resting conditions than healthy controls. These differences in substrate utilisation at rest may be an important consideration in obesity in this clinical group.