BACKGROUND: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) has emerged as a superior method for detecting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared to ejection fraction (EF) on the basis that it is less operator dependent and more reproducible. The 2-dimensional strain (2DS) method is easily measured and integrated into a standard echocardiogram. This study aimed to determine the relationship between GLS and traditional and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD.
METHODS: A cross sectional study of patients with moderate CKD stages 3 and 4 (n = 136). Clinical characteristics, anthropometric, biochemical data including markers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)], uremic toxins [indoxyl sulphate (IS), p-cresyl sulphate (PCS)], and arterial stiffness [pulse wave velocity (PWV)] were measured. Inducible ischemia was detected using exercise stress echocardiogram. GLS was determined from 3 standard apical views using 2-dimensional speckle tracking and EF was measured using Simpson's rule. Associations between GLS and traditional and CKD-related risk factors were explored using multivariate models.
RESULTS: The study population parameters included: age 59.4 ± 9.8 years, 58 % male, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 44.4 ± 10.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2), GLS -18.3 ± 3.6 % and EF 65.8 % ± 7.8 %. This study demonstrated that GLS correlated with diabetes (r = 0.21, p = 0.01), history of heart failure (r = 0.20, p = 0.01), free IS (r = 0.24, p = 0.005) free PCS (r = 0.23, p = 0.007), body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.28, p < 0.001), and PWV (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Following adjustment for demographic, baseline co-morbidities and laboratory parameters, GLS was independently associated with free IS, BMI and arterial stiffness (R(2) for model = .30, p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: In the CKD cohort, LV systolic function assessed using GLS was associated with uremic toxins, obesity and arterial stiffness.