We assess the relative importance of two approaches to leader behavior in predicting project team performance. We compare an extended two- facet model of temporal leadership (temporal planning at project initiation and temporal reminders during project execution) to classic task-oriented leadership in the form of initiating structure delivered at the same two points in time. Results from 62 application development project teams surveyed across the life of a project showed that the two facets of temporal leadership together accounted for 88% of the predictable variance in final project performance, with temporal planning being the more important facet. Initiating structure accounted for small and non- significant amounts of the predictable variance. We conclude that temporal leadership is distinct from initiating structure, and is a more useful approach to leader behavior in the case of teams working on time-limited projects. We suggest implications for theory and for leadership training.