Integrating BIM–IoT and Autonomous Mobile Robots for Construction Site Layout Printing

Fahad Iqbal, Shiraz Ahmed*, Fayiz Amin, Siddra Qayyum, Fahim Ullah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


The traditional methods of marking construction site layouts using manual techniques such as chalk lines are prone to human errors, resulting in discrepancies between blueprints and actual layouts. This has serious implications for project delivery, construction, costs and, eventually, project success. However, this issue can be resolved through autonomous robots and construction automation in line with Industry 4.0 and 5.0 goals. Construction automation enables workers to concentrate on the construction phase and not worry about manual site markups. This leads to an enhancement in their productivity. This study aims to improve the floor layout printing technique by introducing a framework that integrates building information modeling (BIM) and the Internet of Things (IoT), i.e., BIM–IoT and autonomous mobile robots (AMR). The development process focuses on three key components: a marking tool, an IoT-based AMR and BIM. The BIM-based tools extract and store coordinates on the cloud platform. The AMR, developed using ESP32 and connected to the Google Firestore cloud platform, leverages IoT technology to retrieve the data and draw site layout lines accordingly. Further, this research presents a prototype of an automated robot capable of accurately printing construction site layouts. A design science research (DSR) method is employed in this study that includes a comprehensive review of the existing literature and usage of AMRs in construction layout printing. Subsequently building upon the extant literature, an AMR is developed and experiments are conducted to evaluate the system’s performance. The experiment reveals that the system’s precision falls within a range of ±15 mm and its angle accuracy is within ±4 degrees. Integrating robotic automation, IoT and BIM technologies enhances the efficiency and precision of construction layout printing. The findings provide insights into the potential benefits of deploying AMRs in construction projects, reducing site layout errors and improving construction productivity. This study also adds to the body of knowledge around construction automation in line with Industry 4.0 and 5.0 endeavors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2212
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes


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