Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), in particular the UVB spectrum, is a risk factor for skin cancer development. The generation and accumulation of UVB-induced genetic mutations are fundamental premalignant events. Keratinocyte interactions between other cutaneous cell populations and the surrounding microenvironment determine cell fate and acute photoresponses. In this study, the importance of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, in particular the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), on influencing key processes in the keratinocyte acute photoresponse was investigated. Exogenous IGF-I and other growth factors present in dermal fibroblast-conditioned media (CM) were found to significantly enhance keratinocyte survival following UVB irradiation in vitro. This pretreatment was also shown to cause a shift in the expression levels of various DNA damage response proteins. Consequently, this was associated with accelerated rates of UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer removal in these samples. Finally, activation of the IGF system influenced cell cycle progression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the IGF signalling network in initiating the repair of potentially mutagenic DNA damage in human keratinocytes. The dysregulation of these processes may therefore have significant implications in the aetiology of skin cancers and other cutaneous diseases.