Culture flitrates of Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum were inhibitory of Fusarium moniliforme and, to a lesser extent, Aspergillus flavus. The degree of inhibition was, however, dependent on the carbon or nitrogen source incorporated into the medium. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the development of abnormal fruiting structures on exposure to some Trichoderma culture filtrate, while macroscopically, growth restriction and, in the case of A. flavus, altered colony colouration were observed. Based on the results of inverted colony culture, it would appear that some isolates of Trichoderma produce inhibitory volatile compounds. The production of possible antibiotics was also demonstrated. The aggressive behaviour (towards A. flavus and F. moniliforme) demonstrated by Trichoderma spp. may be partly explained by the liberation of extracellular enzymes by these fungi. An isolate of T. viride exhibited amylolytic, pectinolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activity. Based on the results of the present investigation, Trichoderma spp. are potential candidates for biocontrol of some mycotoxin-producing fungi, but there exists some doubt as to their osmotolerance within the air-dry seed.