Background: Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a potential tool for neurorehabilitation and remediation of language in chronic non-fluent aphasia post-stroke. Inhibitory (1Hz) rTMS has been applied to homologous language sites to facilitate behavioural language changes. Improvements in picture-naming performance and speech output over time have been reported. Methods: Low-frequency (1Hz) rTMS was applied to six real stimulation and six sham placebo patients for 20min per day, for 10days, and behavioural language outcome measures were taken at baseline (pre-stimulation) and 2months post-stimulation. Results: The findings demonstrate treatment-related changes observed in the stimulation group when compared to the placebo control group at 2months post-stimulation on naming performance as well as other aspects of expressive language and auditory comprehension. Conclusions: These findings provide considerable evidence to support the theory of rTMS modulating mechanisms of transcallosal disinhibition in the aphasic brain and highlight the potential clinical applications for language rehabilitation post-stroke. Click for the corresponding questions to this CME article.