How many faces do people know?

R. Jenkins*, A. J. Dowsett, A. M. Burton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)
67 Downloads (Pure)


Over our species history, humans have typically lived in small groups of under a hundred individuals. However, our face recognition abilities appear to equip us to recognize very many individuals, perhaps thousands. Modern society provides access to huge numbers of faces, but no one has established how many faces people actually know. Here, we describe a method for estimating this number. By combining separate measures of recall and recognition, we show that people know about 5000 faces on average and that individual differences are large. Our findings offer a possible explanation for large variation in identification performance. They also provide constraints on understanding the qualitative differences between perception of familiar and unfamiliar faces-a distinction that underlies all current theories of face recognition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20181319
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1888
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


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