Glutamate Transporters and Retinal Disease and Regulation

Nigel L. Barnett, Natalie D. Bull

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Within the retina, extracellular glutamate concentrations must be strictly regulated to facilitate neurotransmission. The outer retinal neurons respond to light stimulation with graded potentials, rather than action potentials; thus the concentration of glutamate in the synaptic cleft encodes the light signal. Furthermore, regulation of extracellular glutamate concentrations within the central nervous system is extremely important as over-stimulation of glutamate receptors causes neurotoxicity. High-affinity glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs) located on neuronal and glial cell membranes are responsible for cellular glutamate sequestration and the balancing of extracellular concentration between the level required for physiological neurotransmission and the level that would lead to pathological excitotoxicity. The glial and neuronal high-affinity glutamate uptake systems allow the rapid removal of glutamate from the...
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOcular Transporters In Ophthalmic Diseases And Drug Delivery
EditorsJoyce Tombran-Tink, Colin J. Barnstable
Place of PublicationTotowa, NJ
PublisherHumana Press
Chapter18
Pages333-353
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-59745-375-2
ISBN (Print) 978-1-58829-958-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameOphthalmology Research
PublisherSpringer

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Cite this

Barnett, N. L., & Bull, N. D. (2008). Glutamate Transporters and Retinal Disease and Regulation. In J. Tombran-Tink, & C. J. Barnstable (Eds.), Ocular Transporters In Ophthalmic Diseases And Drug Delivery (pp. 333-353). (Ophthalmology Research). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-375-2_18