Free-living dietary intake in tactical personnel and implications for nutrition practice: a systematic review

Kristen L. Mackenzie-Shalders*, Angela V. Tsoi, Ka Wing Lee, Charlene Wright, Gregory R. Cox, Robin M. Orr

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
190 Downloads (Pure)


Tactical personnel (including military, law enforcement, and fire and rescue) are responsible for ensuring national and public safety. Dietary intake is an important consideration to support optimal health and performance. The aims of this systematic review were to: (1) describe the reported free-living dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) of tactical personnel, and (2) describe the practical implications of reported dietary intakes to support the physical and dietary requirements of tactical personnel. A systematic search of databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science) was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. English and full text research articles were identified and screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic and dietary intake data were extracted, tabulated, and synthesized narratively. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. Twenty-two studies (15 military, 4 law enforcement, and 2 fire and rescue) were eligible to inform this review. The volume of evidence suggested that tactical personnel met dietary protein and exceeded dietary fat recommendations but failed to meet energy and carbohydrate recommendations. Therefore, practical approaches to support optimized energy, fat and carbohydrate intake in tactical personnel is important.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3502
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


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